Tag Archives: 20th Century

Video Profiles: American Conceptual Painter Lee Lozano (1930-1999)

Jo Applin gives an insight into both Lee Lozano’s life and her work, contextualizing her practice and highlighting her response to the constraints of constitutional systems, gender dynamics, power, money, and politics.

Created in 1962–1963, the early paintings and drawings on view at Hauser & Wirth Somerset use airplanes as a central image and can be considered as examples of the artist’s passionate exploration of creative energy in its purist form. This focused body of early work exposes a complex and deeply intimate inner life grappling with one-sided gender and societal dichotomies, while other works display a form of ferocious humour and playfulness, exploiting the rhetoric of exaggeration to its most cogent effect.

Her raw expressionist brush strokes create powerful works imbued with a very personal iconography, including genitals, religious symbols, tools and body parts. Lozano’s short lived but influential career remains a source of fascination, lauded by Lucy Lippard as the foremost female conceptual artist of her era in New York. Jo Applin is author of ‘Lee Lozano: Not Working’ and ‘Eccentric Objects: Rethinking Sculpture.’ She teaches modern and contemporary art at The Courtauld Institute of Art in London.

Video Profiles: French Architect & Designer Charlotte Perriand

In 1938 architect and designer Charlotte Perriand (1903-1999) designed a mountain shelter able to withstand the harsh elements of any mountaintop yet still light enough to be carried by hand.

The “Refuge Tonneau” (“barrel shelter”), her piece of nomadic architecture designed with Pierre Jeanneret, consists of just 12 main prefabricated panels light enough to be manually transported. Once on location, the panels lock together to resist wind, snow, and cold. The tiny barrel-shaped structure sleeps up to 10 people and while it was never constructed in Perriand’s lifetime it was just one of her many designs created for the masses.

In 1934, after 7 years working with Le Corbusier, Perriand began a five-year study of minimal shelters, like the prefab aluminum Bivouac refuge and the affordable, elegant prefab “House at the Water’s Edge”. Hoping to improve upon her easily-transportable, aluminum Bivouac shelter she found inspiration in the merry-go-round. Counting on the dodecagon shape’s ability to withstand strong centrifugal loads (and high winds), she made it the basis for her Refuge Tonneau.

All her tiny shelters were works of studied elimination. “Her mission was to eliminate anything unnecessary,” explains her daughter Pernette Perriand-Barsac, “but always to concentrate on the flow of light and air. Then you can live in the smallest of spaces.” Sébastien Cherruet gave us a tour of Perriand’s minimal structures and apartment design at the Louis Vuitton Foundation’s exhibit he curated: “Charlotte Perriand: Inventing a New World”.

Fast Food: ‘How Much It Costs To Open An Arby’s’

Arby’s is one of America’s favorite fast food sandwich chains. They “have the meats,” according to award-winning actor Ving Rhames’ voice in the brand’s iconic commercials.

Arby’s has been known for its roast beef sandwiches since Leroy and Forrest Raffel opened the first Arby’s in 1964. They wanted to stand out in a sea of burger joints by offering something different: roast beef. They later added cheddar cheese sauce, red onion, and a toasted onion roll to the sandwich in 1978.

Flash forward, and Arby’s has started selling its famous meats by the pound. The fast food-chain also adds limited-time options to attract a variety of customers, such as an upgraded prime rib sandwich, and chicken cheddar ranch sandwich.

Today, Arby’s clearly wants to be seen as more than the place with roast beef. In fact, a campaign was launched called “Head of Sandwiches,” the main purpose of which was to promote the other sandwich options available at Arby’s. The campaign has been successful in attracting a younger consumer into the restaurant, according to Forbes.

Arby’s is currently owned by one of the largest restaurant companies in the U.S., Inspire Brands. In addition to Arby’s, Inspire Brands also owns Sonic, Buffalo Wild Wings, and Jimmy John’s. All combined, there are more than 11,000 restaurants, 1,400 franchisees, and $14.6 billion in system sales within the group, according to the company. Inspire Brands has recently filed trademarks for names of possible ghost kitchens which would offer delivery and takeout only a move that could put them ahead of several quick service chains.

If all this sounds enticing, here’s what you’ll need: The Arby’s team expects all franchise candidates to have extensive multi-unit restaurant operator experience, as well as a desire to open multiple Arby’s locations. You’ll also need a minimum of $500,000 in liquid capital, and a net worth of at least $1 million. Breaking it down further, according to Franchise Gator, Arby’s initial license fee is $37,500 for the first restaurant unit, and $25,000 for each additional store. Royalty fees are an additional 4 percent of gross sales. National and local advertising are additional fees 1.2 and 3 percent of gross sales respectively. Still on board?

Let’s keep going. Arby’s president Jim Taylor recently addressed 700 Arby’s franchisees, telling them, How is Arby’s innovating? Remember the pork belly sandwich, or the marrot, Arby’s meat carrot? Arby’s was also one of the first fast food chains to say it would never serve plant-based meat, according to Food & Wine. Still on the fence? Let’s look at a few more details about Arby’s.

As a franchisee of any corporation, what other franchisees do can trickle down to your stores. While you may own your own restaurants, you are still part of a big family. Arby’s ordered the franchisee to remove the sign and publicly issued an apology — but perhaps the PR damage was done. Which brings us to our next point to consider. Could it be better to open your own independent restaurant in lieu of a franchise? There are pros and cons to both scenarios.

As a franchisee, you benefit from branding, training, marketing, and ingredient sourcing, but also pay fees and royalties, lose some control as an owner, and are subject to scrutiny by the franchise. As an independent owner, you can control your own brand, marketing, menu, and hours, but you also start with no brand recognition, resources, training, or access to suppliers. So what did you decide?

If you’re interested in peddling those famous Arby’s meats, alongside the popular, perfectly seasoned curly fries, submit a franchise application online at Arby’s. Keep watching to see Here’s How Much It Really Costs To Open An Arby’s Franchise.

Tech: ‘Why Electric Cars Took So Long To Develop’

Electric cars have been around since the mid 19th century… So why didn’t they catch on sooner? Telegraph motoring journalist Paul Hudson explains the long journey EVs have gone through, from almost extinction in postwar Britain, up to present day and their pivotal role in the future of driving. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/cars/advi..

New Photography Books: ‘Dogs – Walter Chandoha’, 1941-1991 (Taschen 2020)

We see terriers, collies, beagles, bloodhounds, poodles, small dogs, big dogs, show dogs, working dogs, and many more, featuring over 60 breeds photographed in both black-and-white and glorious Kodachrome.

TASCHEN

The world appears to be divided into cat and dog lovers, but fortunately Walter Chandoha, the 20th century’s greatest pet photographer found himself happily in the middle. He loved these intriguing creatures equally for their unique beauty and individualism, and as subjects to photograph in a career spanning over 70 years. While working on his critically acclaimed TASCHEN book CatsChandoha handpicked his favorite dog photos for a potential follow-up title, putting into carefully marked boxes hundreds of contact sheets, prints, and color transparencies, many unseen for at least 50 years, and some totally unseen.

Chandoha sadly passed away in 2019 at the age of 98, but his legacy lives on in this dashing sequel dedicated to man’s best friend. “Walter Chandoha’s photographs of dogs are compelling not just because dogs have an inherent charm, but because the person behind the camera was a master of his craft,” writes the photography critic Jean Dykstra in the book’s introduction.

Spanning a 50-year period, the book is divided into six sections, and each chapter reveals Chandoha’s exceptional combination of technique, versatility, and soul. The opening chapter “In the Studio” focuses on formal portraiture; next it’s “Strike a Pose” where our canine companions ham it up for the camera; in “Out and About” they get to roam and play, often photographed with Chandoha’s own children; next it’s “Best in Show” with Chandoha using his reportage skills to capture vintage dog shows from the Mad Men era; in “Tails from the City, the dogs are hitting the streets of mid-century New York; and in the closing chapter “Country Dogs, it’s back to nature, the fields, and the beaches. Dogs is an unleashed photographic tribute to these lovable and loyal creatures.

The photographer

Walter Chandoha (1920–2019) was a combat photographer in the Second World War, before a chance encounter with a cat led him on a path that would shape his professional career. He is regarded as the world’s greatest domestic animal photographer with a career spanning over seven decades and an archive of more than 200,000 photographs. His photographs have appeared on over 300 magazine covers, thousands of advertisements, and were regularly featured in magazines such as LifeLook, and their equivalents around the world.

The editor

Reuel Golden is the former editor of the British Journal of Photography and the Photography editor at TASCHEN. His TASCHEN titles include: Mick Rock: The Rise of David Bowie, both London and New York Portrait of a City books, Andy Warhol. PolaroidsThe Rolling Stones, Her Majesty, Football in the 1970s, the National Geographic editions, and The David Bailey SUMO.

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Artwork: Mark Rothko’s ‘Black On Maroon, 1958’ – An “Optical Experience”

In this episode of expert voices, David Galperin examines the painting that entirely shifted the remaining decade of Mark Rothko’s career. In 1958, Rothko’s transforms his color palette into the somber, meditative colors intended to provoke a submersive, awe-inspiring event upon viewing. Learn how in Untitled (Black on Maroon), Rothko embarks on this endeavor for the very first time. Untitled (Black on Maroon) is a highlight of the Contemporary Art Evening auction (28 October 2020, New York).

Arts & Culture: ‘Paris Vs London – A Tale Of Two Capitals’ (Sotheby’s Video)

Pick your favourite between Paris and London as we pit Europe’s premier art capitals against each other in a tongue-in-cheek battle. Compare and contrast the allure of each location as we build-up to our marquee evening auctions on Modernités/Contemporary (21 October | Paris/London).

Discover some of defining moments of the 20th and 21st centuries by the greatest artists working in Europe and beyond. From the birth of the avant-garde and modernism, to seminal contemporary works, the artists represented all forged a distinct path.

Film Business: ‘The Rise And Fall Of Kodak’ (WSJ Video)

At its peak, Kodak was the early 20th century equivalent of Google or Apple, possessing a near monopoly in the film business. But those days are long gone. Here’s why the company’s glossy image failed to withstand the test of time.

Photo Illustration: Carter McCall/WSJ

American Architecture: Evolution Of Indiana Houses In Photographs

In the early nineteenth century, Indiana was at the intersection of ideas from the East and the frontier – resulting in a unique opportunity to express creative adaptions of residential architectural styles in America.

Industrialization later in the century created a new wealth to build extraordinary houses outside of cities; by the early twentieth century, Americans had created their own distinctive residential architecture with the Prairie Style.

This 288 page compendium includes over ninety houses in Indiana which are representative of the finest American residential architecture, from the Federal and Classical Revival style to Modern. The fascinating story of the evolution of residential architecture elaborates on the character defining features of each period, including the exterior form, massing, details as well as interiors – all beautifully illustrated in large format black and white photographs.

Authors: Craig Kuhner and Alan Ward

American Residential Architecture
Oscar Riera Ojeda Publications
Photographs of the Evolution of Indiana Houses

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Transportation History: “The Rise And Fall Of Hertz” (CNBC Video)

Hertz was a pioneer in car rental and a highly recognized brand nearly as old as the American auto industry itself. Decimated by coronavirus, Hertz tried in mid-2020 to take advantage of an odd Robinhood-driven spike in its share price and sell stock to pay off its debts. At the time, the company admitted the shares it was selling could end up worthless. Will Hertz be able to emerge from bankruptcy in some form, or will this be the end of its century-long story.