The Egyptian Economy was the only one in the Middle East North Africa region to avoid a recession in 2020. Being a good reflection of the economic rollercoaster Egypt routinely finds itself on. One driven by inflation rates of up to 30% a year, a halving of its currency and a painful IMF bailout in 2016. But how did Egypt’s Economy find itself in this situation? What impacts did Five Year Plans, spending nearly 20% of GDP on the military and widespread nationalisation have on its economy? Why is Egypt the world’s largest importer of wheat? And perhaps most importantly, what has its post 2011 revolution delivered?
Egypt, a country linking northeast Africa with the Middle East, dates to the time of the pharaohs. Millennia-old monuments sit along the fertile Nile River Valley, including Giza’s colossal Pyramids and Great Sphinx as well as Luxor’s hieroglyph-lined Karnak Temple and Valley of the Kings tombs. The capital, Cairo, is home to Ottoman landmarks like Muhammad Ali Mosque and the Egyptian Museum, a trove of antiquities.