Ulaanbaatar is the capital of Mongolia. It’s in the Tuul River valley, bordering the Bogd Khan Uul National Park. Originally a nomadic Buddhist center, it became a permanent site in the 18th century. Soviet control in the 20th century led to a religious purge. Soviet-era buildings, museums within surviving monasteries, and a vibrant conjunction of traditional and 21st-century lifestyles typify the modern city.